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Chilean President Underestimated His Real Estate Holdings For Not Paying Taxes

in France by

 The President of Chile, Sebastian Piñera The President of Chile, Sebastian Piñera (© AFP)

Sebastian Piñera was summoned to appear on administrative irregularities related to the construction of a second home thirty years ago. Estimated at $ 15,000, the tax authorities revalued it at $ 500,000.

( – The President of Chile, Sebastian Piñera, was summoned to appear last June 7 about administrative irregularities related to the construction of a second home thirty years ago in the south of country. The police court in the city of Pucon (785 km south of Santiago) summoned the president after opposition members filed a complaint last week, accusing him of neglecting the formal procedure at the same time. the construction of this house.

"What's good is that they acted correctly: they personally summoned President Piñera to go, give explanations and pay the appropriate fine like any Chilean," said Thursday. Gabriel Ascencio, one of the authors of the complaint. The Head of State should not, however, go to court and be represented by a lawyer.

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Tax Adjustment

In the absence of all the necessary documents, the value of the house, built on a 20-hectare lot on the edge of a lake surrounded by opulent residences, was estimated at about $ 15,000. As a result of the complaint, the tax authorities revalued it at $ 500,000 and Sebastian Piñera will have to pay at least three years of tax arrears related to this initial underestimation. "The procedures to complete the municipal file are now under way," his lawyers said in a statement.

The controversy erupted as the Conservative president goes through a difficult time, with only 30% of popularity rating according to recent polls. The image of Sebastian Piñera also suffered from the presence of two of his children during his official visit to China in late April, the blocking of his reform promises by an opposition-dominated parliament, and a slowdown in economic growth which was only 1.6% in the first quarter of the year.

(With AFP)

A Real Estate Company Allowed The Personal Information Of Candidates For Rent

in France by

 The information of the applicants for rent were easily accessible The information of the candidates for rent were easily accessible (© AFP)

La Cnil fined 400,000 euros to Sergic, a company that has activities as property manager, trustee of co-ownership, vacation rental, or business real estate. She left personal information available.

( – The National Commission for Computing and Liberties (Cnil) fined 400,000 euros to a real estate company, Sergic, who had left online personal information of candidates for rent, announced the Cnil on June 6th. Sergic, headquartered in Wasquehal (North), is a real estate company with real estate management, co-ownership trustee, vacation rental, and corporate real estate activities.

In August 2018, the CNIL was warned by a user of the website Sergic that he had access to data belonging to other users, she said in his release. It was enough to do this "slightly modify the URL (address, Ed) displayed in the browser", according to CNIL. In an online check on September 7, the CNIL has actually found that copies of identity cards, vital card, divorce decree, certificates of CAF … was actually accessible "without prior authentication".

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In a spot check a few days later, she also realized that Sergic knew the vulnerability "since March 2018", but was slow to correct it, providing only a complete solution to "17 September 2018 ". Additional grievance of the French regulator, Sergic kept the data of its candidates for rent "without limitation of duration". However, once the dwellings were awarded, Sergic was supposed to either erase them or put them in an intermediate archive if their conservation was necessary, for legal reasons for example, says the Cnil.

Very far from respecting the RGPD

The company "failed in its obligation to preserve the security of the personal data of users of its site, provided by Article 32 of the RGPD (European Regulation on Data Protection)," said the French data constable personal. Entered into force on 25 May 2018 in the European Union, the European General Regulation on Data Protection codifies the rights of Internet users when using their personal data, and sets obligations on businesses to ensure the respect of these rights. .

The RGPD allows national regulators like CNIL to impose fines of up to 4% of turnover or 20 million euros. In January, the CNIL fined Google 50 million euros, saying that the US giant did not take the means to ask a real consent to users for the use of their personal data.

(With AFP)

Why The Construction Of The New Mexico City Airport Is Stopped

in France by

 Benito Juarez airport becomes obsolete. Benito Juarez airport becomes dilapidated. (© Carlos Jasso – AFP)

The Mexican president wants to transform the military air base of Santa Lucia into the second airport of the capital. But the works are frozen because it still lacks some authorizations.

( – A Mexican court ordered to suspend the construction of the airport wanted by President Andrés Manuel Lopez Obrador near Mexico City for lack of environmental permits, announced on Friday, June 7 the collective citizen who had demanded this suspension. The works will be frozen as long as "the necessary authorizations which guarantee that the said project will not harm the environment nor reach the integrity of the cultural heritage on the site where it is planned to build", explained the collective in a statement.

Andrés Manuel Lopez Obrador wants to transform the military air base of Santa Lucia, in the northern suburbs of Mexico City, into the second airport of the capital, to relieve that of Benito Juarez, having reached saturation.

Santa Lucia, to be built by the army, was touted by the leftist president as an example of a "rational and austere" policy compared to another canceled project he described as "Pharaonic "and" crippled with corruption ".

A budget of 4 billion dollars

The government estimates the cost of Santa Lucia at $ 4 billion, against $ 13 billion for the stillborn Texcoco project, launched by the previous president, Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-2018). At the end of April, Andrés Manuel Lopez Obrador said he wanted to start the work when environmental permits were issued, for a first stage of construction completed in 2021.

The cancellation of Texcoco, decided following a referendum conducted without the control of the electoral authorities, outraged local companies and undermined the financial markets. It also forced the government to pay $ 1.8 billion in investor compensation after tough negotiations.

With AFP

Pressured By The Executive, Half Of The HLM Organizations Have Started Reconciliations

in France by

 260 groupings of HLM are in progress 260 groupings of HLM are in progress (© AFP)

Social housing organizations are around 700 in France. Their grouping is one of the objectives of the Elan Housing Act.

( – About half of French HLM organizations have started reconciliations, one of the objectives of the housing law adopted in 2018 to simplify the social housing universe, announced Wednesday, June 5 Minister of Housing, Julien Denormandie. "These groupings are very largely engaged and are happening in most cases quite positively," said the minister during a hearing before the Finance Committee of the Senate.

The groupings of social housing organizations, which number about 700 in France, were one of the objectives pursued by the housing law, known as "Elan", which was passed at the end of 2018, with a view to pooling resources and reduction of operating costs. The law imposes in the first place such reconciliations, which Julien Denormandie reminded Wednesday that they did not necessarily belong to "mergers", social landlords who own less than 12,000 homes. "There are about 350 organizations that are concerned and there are more than 260 groups (…) that are already started or implemented or about to end," detailed Julien Denormandie.

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Reduce the Economies

Very rough at the beginning of the five-year period of Emmanuel Macron, which began with major budget efforts requested from social landlords, relations between the HLM and the government are relatively peaceful, the executive having agreed in the spring to reduce the savings required

While social landlords should have reduced their rents by 1.5 billion euros each year starting in 2020 – to compensate for a fall in housing subsidies (especially LPAs) – will be reduced to 950 million with the help of compensations by Action Logement, the joint body managed by the unions and employers. "The effort we asked for (…) was too important," admitted Julien Denormandie.

With AFP

Good Plans To Empty Your Attic At The Best Price

in France by


An inheritance, a beautiful discovery in a flea market, a gift received … You are in possession of an old object, but you do not know much about it. If you want to get rid of it, the first step is to estimate its value. No one is safe from a pleasant surprise: after all, the painting Judith and Holofernes, attributed to Caravaggio and which will go on sale June 27 in Toulouse, was discovered by chance in an attic! It is always possible to dream a little.


Start by looking at it objectively: is it a rare object, which is not the result of an industrial production, unique, or at least belonging to a limited series – photo or print, for example? Is it signed? Stamp on a piece of furniture, signature on a painting or bronze, and even punches on gold or silver coins. Take the time to observe your object with a magnifying glass, the signatures are usually hidden in a corner (drawer, under a base, corner of canvas) not to distort the overall aesthetic.

This careful review will also help you determine the materials used. Each prestige material has had its ersatz that imitates it at a low price: bronze and regulates (the bronze is heavier, the regulator has a yellowish tint if we scratch the surface), crystal and glass (jingle to find out ), silver and silver metal (indicated by the punches), solid wood and veneer (visible on the assemblies). The quality of production also comes into play: an exceptional object has been carefully manufactured and noble materials. A common object, even old, does not take much value. Finally, gather as much information as possible about the origin of your piece: if the pretty painting was bought by an ancestor frequenting the artists of Montmartre, it can be viewed differently.

Expert Opinion

If at this stage you no longer doubt to hold a small treasure, you must meet an expert, a professional who will confirm or refute your idea. A step that reserves its share of surprises, good or bad. Matthias Jakobowicz, auctioneer at Melun, is often forced to disillusion the owners: "The big furniture does not sell at all, even if they are in good condition.It is rather to bet on the small decorative objects to have beautiful "Like him, virtually all auction houses organize free estimates days, during which it is possible to come and consult them. They also respond to requests from photos, which gives a first idea of ​​the value of objects. Another solution is to consult an expert directly, for a current price around 200 euros, or an antique dealer near you.

Ads or Auctions

Once assured of having an object with a market value, three possible circuits of sale are offered to you. First, classified ads sites, such as Leboncoin or eBay. The ad is free unless you take additional options, and you will be put in touch with individuals. Advantages, the sale can be quite fast, be done in cash, and geolocation systems allow to have buyers close to you, which facilitates the exchange. On the other hand, you will certainly be forced to haggle, this is common use on this type of site. And if the buyer is not there, so no cash payment possible, you will have to guarantee the transaction and take care of his shipment.

This system is very suitable for objects of little value, which are more of the second hand than the object of art. It is easy to buy a car seat or a cozy kid for example, or to sell some basic garden furniture, shelves or chest of drawers that can still be used. Some sites (Selency, Etsy …) offer more elaborate services, and more interesting objects, taking a commission on sales.

Second option, the auction. In the case of an isolated object, the minimum value below which a house of sale will not be interested varies from 150 to 300 euros. To help neophytes to embark on the adventure, Louis Barbot founded a little more than a year ago the platform Quelmarteau, which connects individuals and auction houses: "The seller puts pictures on the site and receives free in return for proposals from auctioneers, who specify their estimate, the reserve price, their fees, the date of sale and the individual chooses the study that suits him. "

It must also take into account any transportation costs, if the study is remote. "But this is not an insoluble problem, reassures Louis Barbot Some time ago, one of our salesmen has simply shipped a marble in Paris by La Poste." Setting a reserve price can block the sale of a object if it does not reach a certain threshold. And if it is a particularly rare or curious good, the auctioneer will include it in a special sale, thematic, sometimes with the support of a catalog and advertising. All this implementation takes time. In this process, the auctioneer has an agent role with the seller, for which he sells at the best price. He is responsible for recovering the amount of the auction, collecting his costs and remunerating the seller, usually within one month of the sale.

The interest of the antiquary

Last possibility: to appeal to an antique dealer, either by selling the object to him or by displaying it at his home as part of a consignment. Serge Main, from the Auction House, explains: "I favor the purchase, it's easier for everyone, we do not have to call back the person to lower their price or come back to their home. We take 50% of the sale price, but we pay immediately, it's quick and easy, and we pay the shipping costs. "In the case of a sale deposit, Serge Main applies a discount of 20 % on the price after one month, because its goal is to rotate the goods as quickly as possible, to permanently attract the interest of buyers. "About 80% of the items are sold the first month because we have been around for decades, with a lot of regulars."

Clémentine Pomeau-Peyre


Guaranteeing payment

Between individuals, except cash transaction, you can use Paypal type services, request a transfer or cash a check. You have to wait until the money has arrived on your account before sending the item. Beware of bounced checks, which appear on your statement for a while before disappearing.


Relying on prices on the Internet

Do not take prices for prices on the Internet, especially abroad: the object has not necessarily been sold at the amount posted. Rely on sales results or official odds, and do not confuse sentimental value with market value.


An inheritance, a beautiful discovery in a flea market, a gift received … You are in possession of an old object, but you do not know much about it. If you want to get rid of it, the first step is to estimate its value. No one is safe from a pleasant surprise: after all, the painting Judith and Holofernes, attributed to Caravaggio and which will go on sale June 27 in Toulouse, was discovered by chance in an attic! It is always possible to dream a little.


Start by looking at it objectively: is it a rare object, which is not the result of an industrial production, unique, or at least belonging to a limited series – photo or print, for example? Is it signed? Stamp on a piece of furniture, signature on a painting or bronze, and even punches on gold or silver coins. Take the time to observe your object with a magnifying glass, the signatures are usually hidden in a corner (drawer, under a base, corner of canvas) not to distort the overall aesthetic.

This careful review will also help you determine the materials used. Each prestigious material has had its ersatz that imitates it at low prices: bronze and regulates (the bronze is heavier, the regulator has a yellowish tint if we scratch the surface),


Soaring House Prices In Los Angeles Push Thousands Of People Into The Streets

in France by

 View of Los Angeles View of Los Angeles (© Daniel Slim – AFP)

The number of homeless has jumped in the American city. Every night, 59,000 people have to sleep in emergency accommodation, in vehicles or on the street.

( – The number of homeless people jumped 12% last year in Los Angeles County, California, with over 59,000 people on average each night sleeping in private housing. emergency, vehicles or on the street, according to official figures. Although tens of thousands of people have been relocated in 2018, the important means deployed by Los Angeles County, the most populous of California, are not enough to stem the phenomenon, fueled by casualization and the explosion of rents .

"We have the largest homeless population in the country," said Peter Lynn, director of the Los Angeles Homeless Agency, presenting his annual assessment. The county is also in the lead in the United States for the homeless (who may have shelter but no perennial housing), only exceeded in this category by New York, he said.

36,000 individuals identified as homeless

According to Peter Lynn, it is in the city of Los Angeles itself (about 4 million inhabitants) that the increase was the most marked, with more than 36,000 individuals identified as homeless, an increase of 16% over a year. "We have the most unaffordable real estate market in the United States, which is a unique problem," said Peter Lynn, noting that 700,000 homes in Los Angeles spent more than half of their income on rent. "It represents more than two million Angels (…) who are on the tightrope," he said.

The financial pressure in Los Angeles is such that a person earning the minimum income of $ 13.25 per hour should work 80 hours each week to rent a two-room apartment, according to the expert. Despite the billions of dollars of public money invested, California, the fifth largest economy in the world alone (ahead of France), can not solve the problem.

"The results of this report remind us of the unfortunate truth: rents flowing across the state, the federal government reducing its investment in social housing, coupled with an epidemic of unrest unsupported mentalities, all of which push people to the street faster than we can get out, "responded Los Angeles Democratic Mayor Eric Garcetti.

(With AFP)

When, To Bail Out The UN, His Secretary-general Planned To Sell His Residence

in France by

 Antonio Guterres, Secretary-General of the UN Antonio Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations (© Abdullah Doma – AFP)

When Antonio Guterres took office in 2017, the UN faced a hole of 1.5 billion dollars. He therefore considered selling the official residence of the Secretary General, an estimated multi-million dollar house.

( – UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told diplomats that he had seriously considered selling his Manhattan home in central New York to help the organization to overcome its serious fiscal crisis. "The first thing I did when I arrived was to ask if I could sell the residence," said Antonio Guterres, who took office in January 2017.

The United Nations faced a hole of $ 1.5 billion in the budget of its peacekeeping operations, as well as another $ 492 million in its regular budget due to unpaid bills. Member States. "I'm not kidding, it's a true story," Antonio Guterres told a UN budget committee.

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Any resale is prohibited

The official residence of the UN Secretary-General is a four-story house with a garden and views of the East River, in the affluent Sutton area of ​​Manhattan. It had been offered to the organization by a billionaire in 1972, and its value is estimated at several tens of millions of dollars.

But Antonio Guterres explained that he quickly discovered that the agreements between the United Nations and the United States, hosts of the organization, did not give him the opportunity to sell this prestige property. He said the UN finances were in a "critical" state, and that the organization was heading towards serious cash flow problems by the end of the year, even on the optimistic assumption that all member states pay their contributions in full and on time.

With AFP

The Justice Gives Partially Wrong To The Tenant Who Accused An Elected Of Marseilles To Have Rented Him An Insalubrious Lodging

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 The court dismissed the tenant for lack of evidence The court dismissed the tenant for lack of evidence (© AFP)

The young woman claimed 4,000 euros in damages and interest to the deputy heritage at the town hall of Marseille. She claimed that the house he rented to her was unhealthy.

( – A tenant who accused the deputy heritage at the mayor of Marseille, owner of a studio she considered unhealthy, was dismissed in large part of his requests, failing to have prove the state of insalubrity of this former garage for two-wheelers. The young woman claimed 4,000 euros in damages for the loss of her business destroyed by moisture and for the pressure exerted by her owner, André Malrait, retired architect DPLG, to recover the unpaid rent: she finally obtained 800 euros for the damages suffered, an amount corresponding to the rental debt that it recognized according to the judgment consulted by AFP.

"The tenant has already benefited from compensation (…) from his lessor who has waived to claim the balance of its rental debt", which he estimated at 2,000 euros, also underlines the judgment.

The tenant "asks the judge of the interim to say that the places were unfit for rent in that they were recognized unhealthy by the City of Marseille", "but no express recognition of insalubrity emerges from the pieces produced" continues the judge. "Certainly the city of Marseille has given notice to the landlord to carry out certain work specifying that the building could be the subject of a declaration of insalubrity by the prefect, but she did not call the housing unhealthy ", he says.

A parking lot originally

It can not be disputed that the housing was affected "some disorders that were noted by the municipal services and which gave rise to work of compliance," notes the judge.

A few months after her arrival in May 2018, the young woman was quickly confronted with the deterioration of her home, which was originally intended to be a parking for motorcycles. Attached to the vast property of the 87-year-old elected, the "very small local" resembling a wide corridor of about 2 meters to 2.50 m, according to the findings of the ushers, had been transformed into a dwelling by a change of destination signed by Mayor Jean-Claude Gaudin.

The 23-year-old tenant who had refused after a few months to pay her rent of 520 euros because of the deterioration of the walls of her studio, had initially been assigned herself by André Malrait. But the latter had finally withdrawn after the revelation of the case, occurred in a local context marked by controversies that followed the collapse of two buildings rue d'Aubagne.

With AFP

Even If He Works Poorly, Your Contractor Must Be Paid

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 The entrepreneur who works badly must be paid The entrepreneur who works badly must be paid (© Lady Diy – pixabay)

The sloppy installation of power outlets, the omission of certain telecommunications cables and their malfunctioning are not sufficiently serious and numerous failures to consider that the performance of a contractor has not been performed.

( – It is not allowed to refuse any payment to a contractor who has badly worked, invoking a non-performance on his part. The Court of Cassation admits that a company that has worked poorly is not fully paid, but the amount retained must be related to the importance of the defects.

In the case before it, the court assessed the cost of the deficiencies to be rectified and exempted the client from paying only part of the agreed sum, in relation to the work that was not satisfactory.

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The owner of a building accused an electrician of having delivered a job partially done and poorly done, and he felt he could pay nothing because this contractor had committed to deliver a very neat job. He concluded that the contract was not fulfilled.

But the sloppy installation of power outlets, the omission of certain telecommunications cables and the malfunction of the whole were not, according to the magistrates, serious and numerous failures to consider that the service had not not been executed. It is up to the judge to assess the facts and assess the significance of the defects in order to decide on a waiver of proportional payment, they explained.

(Cass Civ 3, 16.5.2019, Z 18-13.756)

(With AFP)

Can The Landlord Set The Rent He Wants?

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 Rules for fixing rent Rules for fixing rent. (© Mychele Daniau – AFP)

In principle, the landlord sets the rent he wants. But there are exceptions and several forms of rent control.

( – "Fixing the rent of housing rented is free". Article 7 of Law 89-462 of 6 July 1989 is a priori clear. But that does not mean that the landlord always sets the rent he wants. There are many exceptions to this principle.

First rental

When the unit is rented for the first time (or has not been rented for more than 18 months), the landlord sets the rent he wants. Be careful though, if the rented accommodation measures 14 square meters or less, the landlord may be subject to the annual tax on high rents. In 2019, a lessor who receives a monthly rent of at least € 42.47 per m2 for a small-scale housing unit, located in certain large cities (in zone A bis or A), is liable for the tax on micro- housing, says the website

The amount of the tax depends on a rate that varies according to the difference between the rent charged, excluding charges, and the reference rent. The applicable rate ranges from 10% to 40%. "For example, for a dwelling with a monthly rent of € 750 and a living area of ​​14 m², we obtain € 53.57 per m².The difference between the rent charged and the reference rent is to (€ 53.57 – € 42.47) / € 42.47 = 26.14% The applicable rate is then 18% since it is in the range "greater than or equal to 15% and less than 30%. "The owner would therefore be liable to a fee of: (750 € x 12) x 18% = 1620 €.

The Annual Review of Rents

Once a year, the rent can be revised, provided that this clause is included in the lease contract. The Rent Reference Index (RII) is the basis for the calculation. This framework applies to the entire territory in all the communes of France. It is necessary to take the amount of the rent free of charge, the new value of the rent reference index corresponding to the reference quarter provided for in the contract and the rent reference index for the same quarter of the previous year.

Specifically, in order to calculate the rent increase allowed, the following calculation must be made: Current rent x new IRL of the reference quarter of the contract / IRL of the same quarter of the previous year = new rent.

"Any annual rent review can be made within one year of the lease's revision date," says the public-service site. "Failing to show its willingness to apply the revision of the rent within one year after its effective date, the lessor is deemed to have waived the benefit of this clause for the past year", says the l article 17-1 of the law n ° 89-462 of July 6, 1989.

In case of work

The rent may be increased during the lease if improvement work has been carried out. Owner and tenant decide together the increase.

On Relocation or Renewal of Lease

At the renewal of the lease, if the rent is obviously undervalued, the landlord may propose a higher rent. The proposed new rent must be based on rents in the neighborhood for comparable dwellings. The landlord must provide evidence of rents in the vicinity for comparable properties.

The owner must notify, 6 months before the end of the contract, the tenant by registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt, bailiff or hand delivery with receipt. The re-evaluation proposal must contain the full text of section 17-2-II of the copied 1989 Act and indicate the amount of the proposed new rent and the list of references used to determine it. In case of agreement, the rent increase will be done gradually. In case of refusal, the tenant can send a letter 4 months before or not answer. The absence of an answer is a refusal.

This obligation applies to all municipalities located in tight zones. In all, this represents 28 agglomerations. The list of municipalities is the same as that fixed by the decree n ° 2013-392 of May 10, 2013 as part of the tax on vacant housing. In the other municipalities, an upward revaluation during the lease renewal is also possible in the case of undervalued rent, with lighter conditions. Article 17-2 of Law No. 89-462 of 6 July 1989 specifies these conditions.

In tense areas, in the case of a relocation of a dwelling (new tenant or vacancy between two rentals) that has been leased in the last 18 months, there are also limits to the re-evaluation of rents, as we explain here

Capping of Rent

The ceiling on rents was reintroduced by the Elan law passed in late 2018. It is possible on an experimental basis for 5 years for all cities that request it. This is the case as of July 1, 2019 in Paris, where a prefectural decree fixes the reference rents. To find out more, read about us here

Law 1948

The 1948 law concerns housing built before 1 September 1948 in some municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants and imposes very advantageous rents for tenants. "The lease is not necessarily written, so the lease can be verbal and its content is not regulated," says the service-public site. In addition, "the law of 1948 imposes no minimum lease term, depending on the duration agreed between the owner and the tenant at the time of signing.The lease is for an indefinite period is allowed," adds the service-public site.

In addition, "when the lease expires, the tenant benefits from a protection measure which is the right to maintain the premises.This right allows him to stay in the dwelling for no time and without the owner has to draft a new lease. "

On the death of the tenant or if the latter abandons the home, the housing comes out of the law of 1948. Nevertheless, the law provides for a transfer of the right to the maintenance in the places without limitation of duration to the husband or wife, as well as – if they lived there for more than one year – to the minor children until their majority, the ascendants and the handicapped people.

Depending on the category in which a dwelling is classified (which depends on its characteristics), a maximum rent is determined. For example, for a type II C dwelling with a corrected area of ​​43 m2, the maximum monthly rent allowed is 145.59 euros. To learn more, read this page of the service-public site.

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